Patan Durbar Square -A Jewel of Malla Kingdom in Nepal

Posted in Things to Know by Upscale Adventures
Published on Jan 24, 2022

Lalitpur (Patan) is one of Nepal's most ancient cities. Lalitpur is known for its historic architecture, Hindu temples, and rich cultural legacy. It is thought to have been built in the 2nd BC by King Veer Deva.


  1. Origin
  2. History
  3. Siege of Lalitpur
  4. Major Attractions
  5. Map
  6. Gallery


Durbar square, also known as Durbar square, is a royal courtyard or premise found in and surrounding Nepalese royal palaces. Pools, fountains, temples, theaters, and gardens may be found in the three historic palaces of Kathmandu Valley: Basantapur Durbar Square, Patan Durbar Square, and Bhaktapur Durbar Square.


The Kings of the then period used to use the square to organize various festivities, theatrical performances and to meet for various societal causes.


The Newa people, also known as Newars, are the indigenous inhabitants of Nepal's Kathmandu Valley and the founders of the country's medieval civilization. Newars are considered Kathmandu valley indigenous, culturally and linguistically belonging to Indo-Aryan and Mongol tribes.


The 3 durbar squares of Kathmandu valley belonged to the 3 Newari Kings of the Malla period. After the conquest of Kathmandu by the Shah clan of the Gorkha region, the city assimilated with the legion of later monarchs, thus marking the beginning of the Shah period in Kathmandu.



Patan Durbar Square is located at the centre of Lalitpur. A former palace of Malla Kingdom, it was occupied by King Prithvi Narayan Shah of the Shah clan following the Battle of Lalitpur in 1768. The palaces and courtyard are thought to have been built by the Pradhan clan before the Mallas arrived in Nepal. The first patronage of Patan, King Purandara Simha Malla built the palace in the present location of the Durbar square. It was later expanded and refurbished by King Siddhi Narasimha Mall and his son Srinivasa Sukriti in the 16th century. Today, most of the current architecture comes from the 16th century Malla Kingdom.


Inside Patan Durbar Square, there are three important chowks or courtyards: Mul Chowk, Sundari Chowk, and Keshav Narayan Chowk. Other than the chowks, the palace boasts numerous gardens, stone taps, religious shrines and temples. Today, the palace serves as a museum --focusing art and culture of the city.


Siege of Lalitpur

The battle of Lalitpur in 1768 caused much hullabaloo in the city. The last monarch of Patan, King Tej Narasimha Malla fled to Bhaktapur following the siege of the city by the 20,000 men strong Gurkha army.


King Prithvi Narayan Shah commenced the blockade of the city in a bid to cause famine by cutting supplies from entering the city which made the situation of the inhabitants much worse. Captain George Kinloch of the British Raj was appealed by the King of Kathmandu to intervene, however, he was forced to retreat by the Gurkhas. The siege only became possible after striking a deal with numerous nobles of Patan. The Gurkha army marched into the city and took over the palace, thus ending the long fiefdom of the Mallas.


Major Attractions

#1 Krishna Temple

Krishna Temple is the major attraction of the Patan durbar square. Dedicated to Lord Krishna, it was built by King Siddhi Narasimha Malla in 1637, following the mystical dream by the king one night. The temple boasts 21 golden pinnacles. The temple became a major hub of devotees during Krishna Janmashtami on August 17.

#2 Bhimsen Temple

Dedicated to the hero of Mahabharata, a Hindu mythology, Bhimsen is most revered by the Newars of Kathmandu valley. The temple was built by Srinivasa Malla in 1680.


#3 Taleju Bhawani Temple

It was built by King Siddhi Narasimha Malla in 1660. Dedicated to Taleju Bhawani, it is known to be the personal deity of the Malla Kings.


Map of Patan Durbar Square


Krishna Mandir (Temple)

Patan Dubrar Square Court
Handicraft at Patan Temple